Grid computing refers to using computers managed by more than one organization, whether internal or external, to collectively accomplish large tasks, such as derivative risk analysis, candidate drug screening or complex simulations. The management domains can be separate companies, separate divisions of one company, or different data centers and operating organizations inside one company. The computers involved can be dedicated to the grid, or they can contribute spare cycles to run grid work; grid computing also applies to a private cloud used to run grid workloads. Grid computing does not include the use of public cloud-based computers, either partially or fully. We refer to those situations as cloud-based grid computing.